Kalanchoe pinnata preparation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Rios, Lizette E.
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The aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata is traditionally used in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the effectiveness in curtailing the indices of T2DM is not clear. In this study, the efficacy of K. pinnata preparation in the treatment of T2DM animal models was investigated. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of six rats each as follows: Group 1: non-diabetic rats fed normal rat diet, group 2: non-diabetic rats fed high fat diet (HFD), group 3: Type 2 diabetic rats fed HFD, group 4: non-diabetic control group fed normal diet, group 5: non-diabetic control group fed HFD, group 6: diabetic control group, group 7: diabetic plus K. pinnata preparation, and group 8: diabetic plus Metformin. Groups 1 – 3 were euthanized after 21 days to generate baseline data. Thereafter, K. pinnata preparation or metformin was administered for 28 days. Animals were euthanized on day 28 after an overnight fast. Blood and organs were collected for various assays. Type 2 diabetic rats treated with K. pinnata preparation lost significant (P < 0.05) weight. Kalanchoe pinnata consumption resulted in decreased serum glucose. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in HDL and decrease in triglyceride levels. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) activities, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UA) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Serum reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hepatic pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated. Overall, results show that the consumption of K. pinnata preparation in Type 2 diabetic rats decreased body weight and serum glucose levels, as well as increased serum HDL and decreased triglyceride levels which may be beneficial in the effective management of the disease. Similarly, the observed increase in SOD activity and GSH levels in the diabetic rats may be protective against oxidative stress. The observed increase in hepatic PK activity may be indicative of improved glucose metabolism. However, the increase in serum ALP and ALT activities, and BUN and UA levels may be suggestive of hepatic and renal damage.