The effect of heat stress on hydration status and renal biomarkers in NCAA d1 female soccer players in south Texas
MetadataShow full item record
Recent research suggests that recurrent heat-associated hypohydration and strenuous physical exertion may be associated with the development of acute and potentially chronic renal dysfunction. South Texas pre-season conditions in which collegiate soccer is performed in August, may warrant concerns for promoting acute kidney injury (AKI). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate hydration status and renal biomarkers in NCAA Division I female soccer players in South Texas. METHODS: (Mean±SEM; n=21; age: 19.3±0.25 y; ht: 169.6±1.3 cm; wt: 68.4±2.4 kg; LBM: 45.9±1.1 kg). Each subject participated in baseline and ending body composition measures via DXA (iDXA, Lunar Prodigy; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI), and provided 14-urine samples throughout the preseason for the analysis of Urine Specific Gravity (USG), Urine Color Analysis (UCA), Cystatin-C (uCys-C), and Creatinine (uCr). Urine samples were collected at start of preseason (PRE-PS), fitness testing days (FT1, FT2), regular practices (MidW1, MidW2, POST-PS) and exhibition games (PRE-BU, POST-BU,12HR-BU, 24HR-BU, PRE-UT, POST-UT, 12HR-UT, 24HR-UT). Heat index (37.4± 0.8) was assessed at practice sessions and exhibition matches (Kestrel 5000 environmental meter; Kestrel Meters, Boothwyn, PA). RESULTS: UCA and USG showed an effect of time (p <0.0001) between days with PRE-BU and PRE-UT values being lower compared to multiple days. A difference in USG (p = 0.0009) was found comparing PRE-BU (1.012 0.001) vs POST-BU (1.018 0.001) and PRE-UT (1.010 0.001) vs POST-UT (1.021 0.001) (p = 0.00001). uCr showed an effect of time (p <0.0001) between days with PRE-BU and PRE-UT being lower than multiple days. Significant increases in uCys-C were present at 12H-BU, 24H-BU, MidW1, PRE-UT, POSTUT, and 12H-UT (p= ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that subjects arrived at exhibition games (BU, UT) in a euhydrated state with hypohydration occurring 12-hours post- exhibition game, prior to fitness assessments (FT1, FT2), and regular morning practice (MidW1). Values of uCr increased above normative post-exhibition game and may be an indicator of exercise-induced muscular injury. Concentrations of uCys-C remained elevated following 12HBU and did not return to normative values until 12H-UT. Our results indicate that NCAA D1 female soccer players in South Texas are at increased risk of both hypohydration and potential renal injury.
RightsThis material is made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. Copyright law. The user assumes full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used should be fully credited with its source. All rights are reserved and retained regardless of current or future development or laws that may apply to fair use standards. Permission for publication of this material, in part or in full, must be secured with the author and/or publisher.