Numerical study of variable density turbulence interaction with a normal shock wave
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Accurate numerical simulations of shock–turbulence interaction (STI) are conducted with a hybrid monotonicity-preserving–compact-finite-difference scheme for a detailed study of STI in variable density flows. Theoretical and numerical assessments of data confirm that all turbulence scales as well as the STI are well captured by the computational method. Linear interaction approximation (LIA) convergence tests conducted with the shock-capturing simulations exhibit a similar trend of converging to LIA predictions to shock-resolving direct numerical simulations (DNS). The effects of density variations on STI are studied by comparing the results corresponding to an upstream multi-fluid mixture with the single-fluid case. The results show that for the current parameter ranges, the turbulence amplification by the normal shock wave is much higher and the reduction in turbulence length scales is more significant when strong density variations exist. Turbulent mixing enhancement by the shock is also increased and stronger mixing asymmetry in the postshock region is observed when there is significant density variation. The turbulence structure is strongly modified by the shock wave, with a differential distribution of turbulent statistics in regions having different densities. The dominant mechanisms behind the variable density STI are identified by analysing the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, vorticity, normalized mass flux and density specific volume covariance.