Future Flood Risk Exacerbated by the Dynamic Impacts of Sea Level Rise Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico




Bilskie, Matthew V.
Del Angel, Diana
Yoskowitz, David
Hagen, Scott C.


Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Earth's Future


A growing concern of coastal communities is increased flood risk and non-monetary consequences due to climate-induced impacts such as sea level rise (SLR). Previous efforts have discussed the importance of future flood risk quantification using broad aggregations of monetary loss with “bathtub” SLR models rather than more physically based modeling approaches. Here we quantify actual impacts to coastal communities at the census block level using a dynamic, high-resolution, bio geophysical modeling framework for four SLR scenarios for the year 2100. This framework accounts for future sea-levels, landscape change, and urbanization to quantify the 1% and 0.2% annual exceedance probability (AEP) water levels. The computed AEP water levels were used to quantify building damage and populations of displaced people and people requiring long-term shelter across the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) (Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle). The increase in damaged buildings under SLR is linear, with an increase of 16,367 damaged buildings per 1 m of SLR (R2 = 0.96) for the 1% AEP flood. The rate increases to 24,981 damaged buildings per 1 m of SLR (R2 = 0.96) for the 0.2% AEP, on average. The increase in displaced people across the NGOM is 8,056 people per meter of SLR, and people requiring shelter is 300 per meter of SLR. The results in this work highlight the varying levels of risk across the NGOM and the change in risk under climate change-induced impacts.



storm surge, flood, flood risk, sea level rise, building damage, displaced people




Bilskie, M. V., Angel, D. D., Yoskowitz, D., & Hagen, S. C. (2022). Future flood risk exacerbated by the dynamic impacts of sea level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Earth's Future, 10, e2021EF002414. https://doi. org/10.1029/2021EF002414