Don't blame the siblings! Social experiences of gender non-conformity: Does a higher proportion of male siblings and negative feedback affect masculinity among sexual minority men?




Cowan, Alisha R.
Seidel, Steven


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Social role theory Eagly et al. 2004 ; Eagly , 1987) suggests that individuals who conform strongly to traditional gender roles promote the hegemonic male's hierarchy a model of power, status, and strength to receive the benefits of social inclusion For sexual minority men, however, violating these gender roles can lead to negative consequences such as social exclusion, physical violence , and suicidal thoughts Fiske et al. 2002; Vaughn et al. 2017). As a result , sexual minority men may feel pressure to conform to traditional masculinity standards to gain social approval (Taywaditep , 2002; Research has often neglected to consider the significance of sibling relationships from the perspective of sexual minority men. Although sibling relationships are viewed as a normative part of growing up, they can have a significant impact on one's emotional and behavioral development. Positive sibling relationships may serve as protective factors against mental and physical health risks faced by individuals who experience prejudice based on their sexual orientation (Hilton & Szymanski, 2014). Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of sibling relationships in the developmental trajectories of sexual minority men. This study aimed to explore the relationship between a sexual minority man’s experiences with their sibling’s social feedback about their gender nonconforming behavior and his subsequent levels of masculinity. Specifically, does negative feedback from brothers or sisters because of their gender nonconformity in childhood affect a sexual minority man's schema of masculinity and adherence to traditional gender roles in adulthood?