Relationships between extratropical precipitation systems and UTLS temperatures and tropopause height from GPM and GPS-RO


This study characterizes the relationship between extratropical precipitation systems to changes in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) temperature and tropopause height within different environments. Precipitation features (PFs) observed by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite are collocated with GPS radio occultation (RO) temperature profiles from 2014 to 2017 and classified as non-deep stratospheric intrusion (non-DSI; related to convective instability) or deep stratospheric intrusion (DSI; related to strong dynamic effects on the tropopause). Non-DSI PFs introduce warming (up to 1 K) in the upper troposphere, transitioning to strong cooling (up to −3.5 K) around the lapse rate tropopause (LRT), and back to warming (up to 2.5 K, particularly over the ocean) in the lower stratosphere. UTLS temperature anomalies for DSI events are driven predominantly by large scale dynamics, with major cooling (up to −6 K) observed from the mid-troposphere to the LRT, which transitions to strong warming (up to 4 K) in the lower stratosphere. Small and deep non-DSI PFs typically result in a lower LRT (up to 0.4 km), whereas large but weaker PFs lead to a higher LRT with similar magnitudes. DSI events are associated with larger LRT height decreases, with anomalies of almost −2 km near the deepest PFs. These results suggest intricate relationships between precipitation systems and the UTLS temperature structure. Importantly, non-DSI PF temperature anomalies show patterns similar to tropical convection, which provides unification of previous tropical research with extratropical barotropic convective impacts to UTLS temperatures.



gps radio occultation, gpm, upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, lapse rate tropopause, extratropics, precipitation features, temperature anomalies



Attribution 4.0 International


Johnston, B.R.; Xie, F.; Liu, C. Relationships between Extratropical Precipitation Systems and UTLS Temperatures and Tropopause Height from GPM and GPS-RO. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 196.