COS Faculty Works

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    Diurnal precipitation features over complex terrains along the Yangtze River in China based on long-term TRMM and GPM radar products
    (7/7/2023) Zhu, Suxing; Liu, Chuntao; Cao, Jie; Lavigne, Thomas
    Based on the 20-year high-resolution precipitation data from TRMM and GPM radar products, diurnal features over complex terrains along the Yangtze River (YR) are investigated. Using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, the first (diurnal) and second (semi-diurnal) harmonic amplitude and phase of precipitation amount (PA), precipitation frequency (PF), and intensity (PI) are analyzed. The diurnal amplitudes of PA and PF have a decreasing trend from the west to the east with the decreasing altitude of large-scale terrain, while the semi-diurnal amplitudes of PA and PI depict the bimodal precipitation cycle over highlands. For the eastward propagation of PA, PF is capable of depicting the propagation from the upper to the middle reaches of YR, while PI shows the eastward propagation from the middle to the lower reaches of YR during nighttime and presents sensitivity to highlands and lowlands. According to the contribution of different-sized precipitation systems to PI over the highlands and lowlands, the small (6000 km2 ) contribute the most, but the medium ones (200–6000 km2 ) show a slightly larger contribution over the highlands than over the lowlands. The propagation of each scaled precipitation system along the YR is further analyzed. We found that small precipitation systems mainly happen in the afternoon without obvious propagation. Medium ones peak 2–4 h later than the small ones, with two eastward propagation directions at night from the middle reaches of YR to the east. The large ones are mainly located in lowlands at night, with two propagation routes in the morning over the middle and lower reaches of YR. Such a relay of the propagation of the medium and large precipitation systems explains the eastward movement of PI along the YR, which merits future dynamic studies.
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    Multiscale model reduction with local online correction for polymer flooding process in heterogeneous porous media
    (7/13/2023) Vasilyeva, Maria; Spiridonov, Denis
    In this work, we consider a polymer flooding process in heterogeneous media. A system of equations for pressure, water saturation, and polymer concentration describes a mathematical model. For the construction of the fine grid approximation, we use a finite volume method with an explicit time approximation for the transports and implicit time approximation for the flow processes. We employ a loose coupling approach where we first perform an implicit pressure solve using a coarser time step. Subsequently, we execute the transport solution with a minor time step, taking into consideration the constraints imposed by the stability of the explicit approximation. We propose a coupled and splitted multiscale method with an online local correction step to construct a coarse grid approximation of the flow equation. We construct multiscale basis functions on the offline stage for a given heterogeneous field; then, we use it to define the projection/prolongation matrix and construct a coarse grid approximation. For an accurate approximation of the nonlinear pressure equation, we propose an online step with calculations of the local corrections based on the current residual. The splitted multiscale approach is presented to decoupled equations into two parts related to the first basis and all other basis functions. The presented technique provides an accurate solution for the nonlinear velocity field, leading to accurate, explicit calculations of the saturation and concentration equations. Numerical results are presented for two-dimensional model problems with different polymer injection regimes for two heterogeneity fields.
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    Evidence of population-level impacts and resiliency for Gulf of Mexico shelf taxa following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
    (2023-08-02) Patterson III, William F.; Robinson, Kelly Lynn; Barnett, Beverly K.; Campbell, Matthew D.; Chagaris, David C.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Daly, Kendra L.; Hanisko, David S.; Hernandez Jr., Frank J.; Murawski, Steven A.; Pollack, Adam G.; Portnoy, David S.; Pulster, Erin L.
    The goal of this paper was to review the evidence of population-level impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on Gulf of Mexico (GOM) continental shelf taxa, as well as evidence of resiliency following the DWH. There is considerable environmental and biological evidence that GOM shelf taxa were exposed to and suffered direct and indirect impacts of the DWH. Numerous assessments, from mesocosm studies to analysis of biopsied tissue or tissue samples from necropsied animals, revealed a constellation of physiological effects related to DWH impacts on GOM biota, some of which clearly or likely resulted in mortality. While the estimated concentrations of hydrocarbons in shelf waters and sediments were orders of magnitude lower than measured in inshore or deep GOM environments, the level of mortality observed or predicted was substantial for many shelf taxa. In some cases, such as for zooplankton, community shifts following the spill were ephemeral, likely reflecting high rates of population turnover and productivity. In other taxa, such as GOM reef fishes, impacts of the spill are confounded with other stressors, such as fishing mortality or the appearance and rapid population growth of invasive lionfish (Pterois spp.). In yet others, such as cetaceans, modeling efforts to predict population-level effects of the DWH made conservative assumptions given the species’ protected status, which post-DWH population assessments either failed to detect or population increases were estimated. A persistent theme that emerged was the lack of precise population-level data or assessments prior to the DWH for many taxa, but even when data or assessments did exist, examining evidence of population resiliency was confounded by other stressors impacting GOM biota. Unless efforts are made to increase the resolution of the data or precision of population assessments, difficulties will likely remain in estimating the scale of population-level effects or resiliency in the case of future large-scale environmental catastrophes.
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    Long range gene flow beyond predictions from oceanographic transport in a tropical marine foundation species
    (2023-06-05) Tavares, Ana I.; Assis, Jorge; Larkin, Patrick D.; Creed, Joel C.; Magalhaes, Karine; Horta, Paulo; Engelen, Aschwin; Cardoso, Noelo; Barbosa, Castro; Pontes, Samuel; Regalla, Aissa; Almada, Carmen; Ferreira, Rogerio; Abdoul, Ba Mamadou; Ebaye, Sidina; Bourweiss, Mohammed; Van-Dunem dos Santos, Carmen; Patricio, Ana R.; Teodosio, Alexandra; Santos, Rui; Pearson, Gareth A.; Serrao, Ester A.
    The transport of passively dispersed organisms across tropical margins remains poorly understood. Hypotheses of oceanographic transportation potential lack testing with large scale empirical data. To address this gap, we used the seagrass species, Halodule wrightii, which is unique in spanning the entire tropical Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that genetic differentiation estimated across its large-scale biogeographic range can be predicted by simulated oceanographic transport. The alternative hypothesis posits that dispersal is independent of ocean currents, such as transport by grazers. We compared empirical genetic estimates and modelled predictions of dispersal along the distribution of H. wrightii. We genotyped eight microsatellite loci on 19 populations distributed across Atlantic Africa, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Brazil and developed a biophysical model with high-resolution ocean currents. Genetic data revealed low gene flow and highest differentiation between (1) the Gulf of Mexico and two other regions: (2) Caribbean-Brazil and (3) Atlantic Africa. These two were more genetically similar despite separation by an ocean. The biophysical model indicated low or no probability of passive dispersal among populations and did not match the empirical genetic data. The results support the alternative hypothesis of a role for active dispersal vectors like grazers.
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    MariClus: Your one-stop platform for information on marine natural products, their gene clusters and producing organisms
    (2023-08-15) Hermans, Cedric; Lieven De Mol, Maarten; Mispelaere, Marieke; De Rop, Anne-Sofie; Rombaut, Jeltien; Nusayr, Tesneem; Creamer, Rebecca; De Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Soetaert, Wim K.; Hulpiau, Paco
    Background: The marine environment hosts the vast majority of living species and marine microbes that produce natural products with great potential in providing lead compounds for drug development. With over 70% of Earth’s surface covered in water and the high interaction rate associated with liquid environments, this has resulted in many marine natural product discoveries. Our improved understanding of the biosynthesis of these molecules, encoded by gene clusters, along with increased genomic information will aid us in uncovering even more novel compounds. Results: We introduce MariClus (, an online user-friendly platform for mining and visualizing marine gene clusters. The first version contains information on clusters and the predicted molecules for over 500 marine-related prokaryotes. The user-friendly interface allows scientists to easily search by species, cluster type or molecule and visualize the information in table format or graphical representation. Conclusions: This new online portal simplifies the exploration and comparison of gene clusters in marine species for scientists and assists in characterizing the bioactive molecules they produce. MariClus integrates data from public sources, like GenBank, MIBiG and PubChem, with genome mining results from antiSMASH. This allows users to access and analyze various aspects of marine natural product biosynthesis and diversity.
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    Indicators to monitor the status of the tree of life
    (2023-06-28) Gumbs, Rikki; Chaudhary, Abhishek; Daru, Barnabas H.; Faith, Daniel P.; Forest, Felix; Gray, Claudia L.; Kowalska, Aida; Lee, Who-Seung; Pellens, Roseli; Pipins, Sebastian; Pollock, Laura J.; Rosindell, James; Scherson, Rosa A.; Owen, Nisha R.
    Following the failure to fully achieve any of the 20 Aichi biodiversity targets, the future of biodiversity rests in the balance. The Convention on Biological Diversity’s Kunming–Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) presents the opportunity to preserve nature’s contributions to people (NCPs) for current and future generations by conserving biodiversity and averting extinctions. There is a need to safeguard the tree of life—the unique and shared evolutionary history of life on Earth—to maintain the benefits it bestows into the future. Two indicators have been adopted within the GBF to monitor progress toward safeguarding the tree of life: the phylogenetic diversity (PD) indicator and the evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered (EDGE) index. We applied both to the world’s mammals, birds, and cycads to show their utility at the global and national scale. The PD indicator can be used to monitor the overall conservation status of large parts of the evolutionary tree of life, a measure of biodiversity’s capacity to maintain NCPs for future generations. The EDGE index is used to monitor the performance of efforts to conserve the most distinctive species. The risk to PD of birds, cycads, and mammals increased, and mammals exhibited the greatest relative increase in threatened PD over time. These trends appeared robust to the choice of extinction risk weighting. EDGE species had predominantly worsening extinction risk. A greater proportion of EDGE mammals(12%) had increased extinction risk compared with threatened mammals in general (7%).
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    Nanosilver: An old antibacterial agent with great promise in the fight against antibiotic resistance
    (2023-07-31) Kaiser, Kyra G.; Delattre, Victoire; Frost, Victoria J.; Buck, Gregory W.; Phu, Julianne V.; Fernandez, Timea G.; Pavel, Ioana E.
    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major problem worldwide that costs 55 billion USD annually for extended hospitalization, resource utilization, and additional treatment expenditures in the United States. This review examines the roles and forms of silver (e.g., bulk Ag, silver salts (AgNO3), and colloidal Ag) from antiquity to the present, and its eventual incorporation as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in numerous antibacterial consumer products and biomedical applications. The AgNP fabrication methods, physicochemical properties, and antibacterial mechanisms in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models are covered. The emphasis is on the problematic ESKAPE pathogens and the antibiotic-resistant pathogens of the greatest human health concern according to the World Health Organization. This review delineates the differences between each bacterial model, the role of the physicochemical properties of AgNPs in the interaction with pathogens, and the subsequent damage of AgNPs and Ag+ released by AgNPs on structural cellular components. In closing, the processes of antibiotic resistance attainment and how novel AgNP–antibiotic conjugates may synergistically reduce the growth of antibiotic-resistant pathogens are presented in light of promising examples, where antibiotic efficacy alone is decreased.
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    Uncoupling techniques for multispecies diffusion–reaction model
    (2023-08-04) Vasilyeva, Maria; Stepanov, Sergei; Sadovski, Alexey; Henry, Stephen
    We consider the multispecies model described by a coupled system of diffusion–reaction equations, where the coupling and nonlinearity are given in the reaction part. We construct a semi-discrete form using a finite volume approximation by space. The fully implicit scheme is used for approximation by time, which leads to solving the coupled nonlinear system of equations at each time step. This paper presents two uncoupling techniques based on the explicit–implicit scheme and the operator-splitting method. In the explicit–implicit scheme, we take the concentration of one species in coupling term from the previous time layer to obtain a linear uncoupled system of equations. The second approach is based on the operator-splitting technique, where we first solve uncoupled equations with the diffusion operator and then solve the equations with the local reaction operator. The stability estimates are derived for both proposed uncoupling schemes. We present a numerical investigation for the uncoupling techniques with varying time step sizes and different scales of the diffusion coefficient.
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    Synthesis of novel conjugated benzofuran-triazine derivatives: Antimicrobial and in-silico molecular docking studies
    (2023-07-27) Riyahi, Zahra; Asadi, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Khodamoradi, Elahe; Gonzalez, Alexa; Abdolmaleki, Mahmood Karimi
    Two new developments of antibacterial agents, a series of benzofuran-triazine based compounds (8a-8h) were designed and synthesized. The derivatives were prepared through conventional chemical reactions and structurally characterized with FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized derivatives was assessed against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterial strains (Salmonella entritidis and Escherichia coli). Compound 8e, with the MIC value of 125-32 μg/μl against all the examined strains of bacteria, was the most active antibacterial compound. The synthesized derivatives were also studied for docking to the binding sites of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) receptor which has a key role in drug resistance associated with bacterial infections. The synthesized compounds showed good interaction with the targets through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. According to antibacterial and docking studies, compound 8e could be introduced as a candidate for development of antibacterial compounds.
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    Assessing the ducting phenomenon and its impact on GNSS radio occultation refractivity retrievals over the Northeast Pacific Ocean using radiosondes and global reanalysis
    (2023-07-24) Winning Jr., Thomas E.; Xie, Feiqin; Nelson, Kevin J.
    In this study, high-resolution radiosondes from the MAGIC field campaign and ERA5 global reanalysis data are used to assess the elevated ducting layer characteristics along the transect over the northeastern Pacific Ocean from Los Angeles, California to Honolulu, Hawaii. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBLH) increases as the strength of the refractivity gradient and resultant ducting decrease from east to west across the analysis transect. The thickness of the ducting layer remains remarkably consistent (∼110 m) in the radiosonde data. On the other hand, the ERA5 generally resolves the ducting features well but underestimates the ducting height and strength especially over the trade cumulus region near Hawaii. A simple two-step end-to-end simulation is used to evaluate the impact of the elevated ducting layer on RO refractivity retrievals. A systematic negative refractivity bias (N-bias) below the ducting layer is observed throughout the transect, peaking approximately 70 meters below the PBL height (−5.42 %), and gradually decreasing towards the surface (−0.5 %). Further, the underestimation of the N-bias in the ERA5 data increases in magnitude westward and while the correlation of the N-bias with the minimum gradient and sharpness are all strong; there is no evidence of zonal dependence.
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    Influence of heterogeneity or shape on the locomotion of a caged squirmer
    (2023-07-12) Aymen, U.; Palaniappan, D.; Demir, E.; Nganguia, H.
    The development of novel drug delivery systems, which are revolutionizing modern medicine, is benefiting from studies on microorganisms’ swimming. In this paper we consider a model microorganism (a squirmer) enclosed in a viscous droplet to investigate the effects of medium heterogeneity or geometry on the propulsion speed of the caged squirmer. We first consider the squirmer and droplet to be spherical (no shape effects) and derive exact solutions for the equations governing the problem. For a squirmer with purely tangential surface velocity, the squirmer is always able to move inside the droplet (even when the latter ceases to move as a result of large fluid resistance of the heterogeneous medium). Adding radial modes to the surface velocity, we establish a new condition for the existence of a co-swimming speed (where squirmer and droplet move at the same speed). Next, to probe the effects of geometry on propulsion, we consider the squirmer and droplet to be in Newtonian fluids. For a squirmer with purely tangential surface velocity, numerical simulations reveal a strong dependence of the squirmer’s speed on shapes, the size of the droplet and the viscosity contrast. We found that the squirmer speed is largest when the droplet size and squirmer’s eccentricity are small, and the viscosity contrast is large. For co-swimming, our results reveal a complex, non-trivial interplay between the various factors that combine to yield the squirmer’s propulsion speed. Taken together, our study provides several considerations for the efficient design of future drug delivery systems.
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    SERS of human red blood cells in non-resonant conditions: Benefits, limitations, and complementary tools (CytoViva and GFAAS)
    (2023-06-21) Wells, Kelsey L.; Alla, Praveen K.; Kaiser, Kyra G.; Murgulet, Ioana T.; Adragna, Norma C.; Pavel, Ioana E.
    Herein, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies (SERS) were successfully employed to establish the chemical interactions of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 10–15 nm) with human red blood cells (RBCs). The Raman/SERS spectra offered spectral evidence for the cellular uptake of AgNPs and the subsequent change in the conformation of the most abundant component, hemoglobin (Hb), from oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin. The spectral characterization of AgNPs’ interactions with other RBC biomarkers (membrane proteins and lipids) was impeded by the dominant Hb bands, even for non resonant Hb conditions. CytoViva hyperspectral imaging and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) served as complementary tools to effectively address the challenges related to a single excitation line (632.8 nm) and the resolution of the confocal Raman microscope (0.5–1.0 µm). CytoViva confirmed the RBC-AgNP interactions through hyperspectral signatures and facilitated the label-free localization of AgNPs extracellularly and intracellularly. Irreversible agglutination of RBCs was noted after 24 h of exposure, raising concerns about the toxicity of AgNPs of biocompatible citrate coatings. GFAAS validated the Raman/SERS results by quantifying the proportion of AgNPs absorbed by RBCs, which was significant (~48% AgNPs by mass), mostly at the membrane (60% RBCs), and size dependent (no large AgNPs or AgNP-aggregates in RBCs, after 12–24 h).
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    Light-driven self-assembly of spiropyran-functionalized covalent organic framework
    (2023-06-23) Das, Gobinda; Prakasam, Thirumurugan; Alkhatib, Nour; AbdulHalim, Rasha G.; Chandra, Falguni; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Garai, Bikash; Varghese, Sabu; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Ravaux, Florent; Pasricha, Renu; Jagannathan, Ramesh; Saleh, Na'il; Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Olson, Mark; Trabolsi, Ali
    Controlling the number of molecular switches and their relative positioning within porous materials is critical to their functionality and properties. The proximity of many molecular switches to one another can hinder or completely suppress their response. Herein, a synthetic strategy involving mixed linkers is used to control the distribution of spiropyran-functionalized linkers in a covalent organic framework (COF). The COF contains a spiropyran in each pore which exhibits excellent reversible photo switching behavior to its merocyanine form in the solid state in response to UV/Vis light. The spiro-COF possesses an urchin-shaped morphology and exhibits a morphological transition to 2D nanosheets and vesicles in solution upon UV light irradiation. The merocyanine-equipped COFs are extremely stable and possess a more ordered structure with enhanced photoluminescence. This approach to modulating structural isomerization in the solid state is used to develop inkless printing media, while the photomediated polarity change is used for water harvesting applications.
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    Dataset of seagrass methane
    (2023-05-06) Yu, Hao
    Dataset of seagrass methane from 6/13/2028 through 5/21/2021.
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    OER report 2023
    (2023-04-06) Orbach, Dara
    The course for which I am developing OERs is BIOL 3425 Functional Anatomy, a large lecture and lab course (~70 students). The expensive cost of the textbook I previously used (Kardong (2018) Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution, 8th Edition. McGraw Hill) seemed to preclude some students from purchasing it and preparing adequately to succeed in class. The cost of a new hardcover textbook is $155 on Amazon. With 70 students enrolled, the monetary value saved is $10,850 by using an OER as a substitute. There are four OER components to the course I have developed.
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    Fluorescent molecular rotors based on hinged anthracene carboxyimides
    (2023-04-04) Ni, Yanhai; Fang, Wangjian; Olson, Mark
    Temperature and viscosity are essential parameters in medicine, environmental science, smart materials, and biology. However, few fluorescent sensor publications mention the direct relationship between temperature and viscosity. Three anthracene carboxyimide-based fluorescent molecular rotors, 1DiAC·Cl, 2DiAC·Cl, and 9DiAC·Cl, were designed and synthesized. Their photophysical properties were studied in various solvents, such as N, N-dimethylacetamide, N, N-dimethylformamide, 1-propanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, and water. Solvent polarizability resulted in a solvatochromism effect for all three rotors and their absorption and emission spectra were analyzed via the Lippert–Mataga equation and multilinear analysis using Kamlet–Taft and Catalán parameters. The rotors exhibited red-shifted absorption and emission bands in solution on account of differences in their torsion angle. The three rotors demonstrated strong fluorescence in a high-viscosity environment due to restricted intramolecular rotation. Investigations carried out under varying ratios of water to glycerol were explored to probe the viscosity-based changes in their optical properties. A good linear correlation between the logarithms of fluorescence intensity and solution viscosity for two rotors, namely 2DiAC·Cl and 9DiAC·Cl, was observed as the percentage of glycerol increased. Excellent exponential regression between the viscosity-related temperature and emission intensity was observed for all three investigated rotors.
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    Characterization of micelle formation by the single amino acid-based surfactants undecanoic L-isoleucine and undecanoic L-norleucine in the presence of diamine counterions with varying chain lengths
    (2023-04-04) Maynard-Benson, Amber; Alekisch, Mariya; Wall, Alyssa; Billiot, Eugene J.; Billiot, Fereshteh H.; Morris, Kevin F.
    The binding of linear diamine counterions with different methylene chain lengths to the amino-acid-based surfactants undecanoic L-isoleucine (und-IL) and undecanoic L-norleucine (undNL) was investigated with NMR spectroscopy. The counterions studied were 1,2-ethylenediamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, and 1,6-diaminohexane. These counterions were all linear diamines with varying spacer chain lengths between the two amine functional groups. The sodium counterion was studied as well. Results showed that when the length of the counterion methylene chain was increased, the surfactants’ critical micelle concentrations (CMC) decreased. This decrease was attributed to diamines with longer methylene chains binding to multiple surfactant monomers below the CMC and thus acting as templating agents for the formation of micelles. The entropic hydrophobic effect and differences in diamine counterion charge also contributed to the size of the micelles and the surfactants’ CMCs in the solution. NMR diffusion measurements showed that the micelles formed by both surfactants were largest when 1,4-diaminobutane counterions were present in the solution. This amine also had the largest mole fraction of micelle-bound counterions. Finally, the und-NL micelles were larger than the und-IL micelles when 1,4-diaminobutane counterions were bound to the micelle surface. A model was proposed in which this surfactant formed non-spherical aggregates with both the surfactant molecules’ hydrocarbon chains and n-butyl amino acid side chains pointing toward the micelle core. The und-IL micelles, in contrast, were smaller and likely spherically shaped.
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    Online multiscale finite element simulation of thermo-mechanical model with phase change
    (2023-03-29) Ammosov, Dmitry; Vasilyeva, Maria
    This paper presents a thermo-mechanical model with phase transition considering changes in the mechanical properties of the medium. The proposed thermo-mechanical model is described by a system of partial differential equations for temperature and displacements. In the model, soil deformations occur due to porosity growth caused by ice and water density differences. A finite element approximation of this model on a fine grid is presented. The linearization from the previous time step is used to handle the nonlinearity of the problem. For reducing the size of the discrete problem, offline and online multiscale approaches based on the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) are proposed. A two-dimensional model problem simulating the heaving process of heterogeneous soil with a stiff inclusion was considered for testing the mathematical model and the multiscale approaches. Numerical solutions depict the process of soil heaving caused by changes in porosity due to the phase transition. The movement of the phase transition interface was observed. The change of medium properties, including the elastic modulus, was traced and corresponds to the phase transition interface. The proposed multiscale approaches significantly reduce the size of the discrete problem while maintaining reasonable accuracy. However, the online multiscale approach achieves better accuracy than the offline approach with fewer degrees of freedom.
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    Preparation of a reduced Cr2+ solution for sulfide distillation using a Jones Reductor
    (2023-03-07) Larkin, Patrick; Rubiano-Rincon, Sebastian
    This protocol uses a Jones Reductor to prepare reduced Cr2+for the distillation of H2S from marine sediments. It is an adaptation of a protocol described by Backlund et al (DOI:
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    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics potential of the DUNE experiment
    (2020-10-22) abi, babak; Acciarri, Roberto; Acero O, Mario A; Adamov, G; Adams, David; Adinolfi, M; Ahmad, Z; Szczerbinska, Barbara
    The sensitivity of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to neutrino oscillation is determined, based on a full simulation, reconstruction, and event selection of the far detector and a full simulation and parameterized analysis of the near detector. Detailed uncertain ties due to the flux prediction, neutrino interaction model, and detector effects are included. DUNE will resolve the neutrino mass ordering to a precision of 5σ, for all δCP values, after 2 years of running with the nominal detector design and beam configuration. It has the potential to observe charge-parity violation in the neutrino sector to a precision of 3σ (5σ) after an exposure of 5 (10) years, for 50% of all δCP values. It will also make precise measurements of other parameters governing long-baseline neutrino oscillation, and after an exposure of 15 years will achieve a similar sensitivity to sin2 2θ13 to current reactor experiments.