A salinity-temperature sensor based on microwave resonance reflection




Bogucki, Darek
Snowdon, Tom
Doerr, Jennifer
Serafy, Joseph

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We developed and tested a microwave in situ salinity sensor (MiSSo) to simultaneously measure salinity and temperature within the same water sample over broad ranges of salinity (S) (3–50 psu) and temperature (T) (3–30 ◦C). Modern aquatic S sensors rely on measurements of conductivity (C) between a set of electrodes contained within a small volume of water. To determine water salt content or S, conductivity, or C, measurements must be augmented with concurrent T measurements from the same water volume. In practice, modern S sensors do not sample C and T within the same volume, resulting in the S determination characterized by measurement artifacts. These artifacts render processing vast amounts of available C and T data to derive S time-consuming and generally preclude automated processing. Our MiSSo approach eliminates the need for an additional T sensor, as it permits us to concurrently determine the sample S and T within the same water volume. Laboratory trials demonstrated the MiSSo accuracy of S and T measurements to be <0.1 psu and <0.1◦C, respectively, when using microwave reflections at 11 distinct frequencies. Each measurement took 0.1 µs. Our results demonstrate a new physical method that permits the accurate S and T determination within the same water volume.



aquatic salinity measurements, aquatic temperature measurements, environmental monitoring


We would like to thank NOAA (contract number: 1333MF21PNFFN0036) and TAMUCC University Research Enhancement funds for the partial support.


Attribution 4.0 International


Bogucki, D.J.; Snowdon, T.; Doerr, J.C.; Serafy, J.E. A Salinity–Temperature Sensor Based on Microwave Resonance Reflection. Sensors 2022, 22, 5915. https:// doi.org/10.3390/s22155915